Etudes for Microsoft Word Programmers

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Terms

Information from http://www.paratype.com and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki.

Term

Meaning

Add-In, Addin
Add-On, Addon
Plug-in, Plugin

Computer program that interacts with a main (or host) application (a web browser or an email program, for example) to provide a certain, usually very specific, function on demand.
Microsoft Word plug-ins (add-ins) are global templates with DOT extension (usually located in the Startup folder) and special dynamic libraries with WLL file extension.

Adjustment

Regulating, adapting or settling.

Anchor

A device used to attach a ship or boat to the bottom. Means home point for pictures and figures located in the text.

ASCII

ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is a character encoding based on the English alphabet. ASCII codes represent text in computers, communications equipment, and other devices that work with text. Most modern character encodings — which support many more characters — have a historical basis in ASCII.

Binding

Cover. Book-cover.

Bold

A weight of a type. A blacker, heavier variation of a typeface, relative to the roman variation. Used for headlines and display matters. The first bold face was created ca. 1800 by London type founder Robert Thorne (1754–1820) as a singular type for poster and display setting. Bold faces were used for text emphasis since the end of the19th century.

Border

Ornament constructed of decorative units in the form of edging strip. Used for display matters.
Bound.

Bullet (point)

A mark used to set off items in a list, frequently a filled circle.

Canvas

The canvas element is part of HTML5 and allows for dynamic rendering of scriptable bitmap images.

Capital, Upper case, Uc

Capitals, or uppercase letters. ALL CAPS LOOK LIKE THIS. A relatively modern innovation. The Romans, Greeks, and Oriental peoples never distinguished capitals from small letters. All these earlier languages used two forms — a carefully drawn form of writing with separate signs on official documents and monuments and a less carefully drawn form of cursive (running) writing with roundish and often joined signs on less official documents, such as letters. During the Middle Ages a form of capital letters called uncials was developed. Uncials (from a Latin word “uncia” meaning "inch-high") were squarish in shape, with rounded strokes. They were used in Western Europe in handwritten books, side by side with small-letter cursive writing, used in daily life. After the Renaissance and the introduction of printing in Europe, two types of letters were distinguished: the majuscules, which were formed as an imitation of the ancient Latin characters, and the minuscules, which continued the tradition of the medieval cursive writing.

Caret

Insertion point. Displays as special blinking symbol.

Drop cap

A large initial capital in a paragraph that extends through several lines and is aligned with the top of the first line. This method is used to indicate the start of a new section of a text, such as a chapter.

Encoding

Suite of characters in definite order. Usually Encoding contains a character set that covers languages of similar alphabets. Due to historical reasons two main computer platforms -- Mac and Windows use close by set, but different by order encodings for fonts. Parallel encodings -- Windows Western and Mac Roman contain the caps and lower case of English alphabet, national letters of the most European languages (Danish, Dutch, French, German, Irish, Iceland, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Spanish, Swedish, etc.), figures, punctuation marks, ligatures and other sorts.

Endnote

Footnotes and endnotes are used in documents and books to show the source of borrowed material or to enter explanatory or supplementary information. Footnotes go at the bottom of a page and endnotes are placed at the end of a document.

Fill

The following fill types are available in Microsoft Word: solid, gradient, texture, picture, patterned and semi-transparent.

Figure

Picture or table in the document.
Numeral, digit. The signs that mark numbers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0. That symbols are included into the standard Latin character set and into character sets of many other alphabet systems. There are several kinds of typographic figures. For example they may be Lining or Oldstyle, Tabular or Proportional ones. There are Superior figures and Inferior figures too.

Font

Fount. In modern usage the term “font” is often confused with “typeface” and “family”. Traditionally, the term “font” (originally spelt “fount” in Britain) represents a complete set of characters or symbols of the same size and style. Fonts can be as small as the basic alphabet or up to hundreds of characters. Some languages, like Japanese, can exceed these numbers, which make them more difficult to access from the standard keyboard. Originally derived from the word “found” as in typefoundry. Now it is used as another name for a single weight or style of a typeface.

Footer
Footnote

A page footer or simply footer in typography is that material which is separated from the main body of text and appears at the bottom of a printed page. Word processing programs usually provide for the creation and maintenance of page footers, which are often the same from page to page, with merely small differences in information, such as page number. Footnotes are usually placed in or near the page footer.

Global template

Tempalte in the Microsoft Word startup folder.

Gutter

Extra margin space.

Header

A page header or simply header in typography is that material which is separated from the main body of text and appears at the top of a printed page. Word processing programs usually provide for the creation and maintenance of page headers, which are often the same from page to page, with merely small differences in information, such as page number. In publishing the page header (or "pagehead") is often referred to as the running head. Typical running heads in a book might consist of the book title on the left-hand (verso) page, and the chapter title on the right-hand (recto) page, or chapter title on the verso and subsection title on the recto.

Hyphenation

The splitting of a word across lines, as an aid to uniform line breaking. Also a software algorithm or program.

Indent

Text can be indented, meaning it is shifted horizontally from the margin to set it apart from surrounding text.

Italic

A sloped or cursive variation of Roman. In most cases this represents a complementary style of the upright letter, although some of the lowercase letters may change form slightly and the serif structure is different. Modern usage requires an italic to accompany a roman in most types designed for continuous reading.

InlineShape

Inline picture. Any object (picture, table, OLE object, etc) located in the document text. Such object are displayed as inline symbols.

Justification

Generically, placing lines of text in a particular relationship to one or both margins. As distinct from flush left or flush right, justified text has both the left and right margins even.

Kerning

The adjustment of horizontal space between individual characters in a line of text. Adjustments in kerning are especially important in large display and headline text lines. Without kerning adjustments, many letter combinations can look awkward. The objective of kerning is to create visually equal spaces between all letters so that the eye can move smoothly along the text. In traditional metal typography, a kern is the part of a letter that extends beyond the left or right edge of the rectangular type body. Some automatic typesetting machines (e.g. the Monotype) could handle kerned type, but others forced all the character to be within the rectangular body. The Linotype was one of the latter, resulting in many inelegant italic letters - it's the cause of Sabon's many admirable workarounds. Being fragile, kerns could break off if the type was mishandled. In digital typography, kerning has a different meaning. The old worry about fragility has disappeared (although some old formats, e.g. FNT, still restricted the design to the rectangular body); so the italic f can keep its grace. Digital kerning (or, more precisely, "pair kerning") allows the spacing between any pair of characters to be specified, allowing, for example, an r following a T to nestle underneath the right-hand bar slightly, or an LY pair to nudge closer together. It is normally the task of the type designer (or digitizer) to devise all the kerning values. In the days of metal, these adjustments were only possible with extreme labour, and were almost never seen. In TrueType, pair kerning has always been possible in the 'kern' table, where character combinations are stored with the amount (in font design units) to shift the second character when it comes after the first. Not all applications bother to use kerning information, so the default rectangular body should always be very carefully controlled. Triple-kerning (such as for the occasionally troublesome combination f.”) is supported in OpenType and TrueType GX.

Label

A label is any kind of tag attached with adhesive to something so as to identify the object or its contents.

Layout

The following page layouts are available in Microsoft Word View menu - Normal, Web, Print, Reading and Outline.

Letter Spacing

Adjusting the average distance between letters in a block of text to fit text into the given space or to improve legibility. Kerning allows adjustments between individual letters; letterspacing is applied to a block of text as a whole. Also called tracking or track kerning. See also Tracking.

Margin

In typography, a margin is the white space that surrounds the content of a page. The margin helps to define where a line of text begins and ends. When a page is justified the text is spread out to be flush with the left and right margins. The standard margin in most word processing programs is 1 inch.

Outline, Open

A digital representation of an image (such as an alphabetic character) where solid shapes are represented by the mathematical curves approximating their outlines. Circles, ellipses, quadratic and cubic curves have been used in different outline representations. Outlines are nicely scalable (and transformable in other ways), unlike bitmap representations. Glyph outlines in TrueType consist of a series of points, each being either “on-curve” or “off-curve”. Consecutive on-curve points define a straight line. Consecutive off-curve points have an on-curve point interpolated between them by the scan-converter. A quadratic Bezier curve is defined by a sequence of on-curve, off-curve, on-curve. There's an index to where each contour ends. Contours are self-closing.
Decorative style as on the left picture.

Outline level

Level in the Table of Content.

Pane

A paned window is a window that is divided into sections known as panes

Pangram

A sentence containing every letter of the alphabet. Useful in font demonstrations. Frequently used are phrases like “How razorback-jumping frogs can level six piqued gymnasts!” or "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog”. But less common are “The risque gown makes a very brazen exposure of juicy flesh” or “Jaded zombies acted quaintly but kept driving their oxen forward” or even “The sex life of the woodchuck is a provocative question for most vertebrate zoology majors” and the even more rare “Jelly-like above the high wire, six quaking pachyderms kept the climax of the extravaganza in a dazzling state of flux”.

Pagination

Pagination is the system by which the information on a newspaper, book page, manuscript, or otherwise handwritten or printed document are laid out.

Pixel

A pixel (short for picture element, using the common abbreviation "pix" for "picture") is a single point in a graphic image. Each such information element is not really a dot, nor a square, but an abstract sample. With care, pixels in an image can be reproduced at any size without the appearance of visible dots or squares; but in many contexts, they are reproduced as dots or squares and can be visibly distinct when not fine enough. The intensity of each pixel is variable; in color systems, each pixel has typically three or four dimensions of variability such as red, green, and blue, or cyan, magenta, yellow, and black.

Placeholder

Usually empty frame which is responsible for locating picture or other object.

Point size

The height of the type body, expressed in points. A standard type measurement system was originally developed by the Parisian type founder Pierre Fournier Le Jeune in 1737. In the days of metal type, the point size was the total number of points in the height of metal type, including the ascent and descent of the letters, and the metal above and below the letters (i.e., built-in leading).

Regular expression

Special expression that is used in text search. Could contain special symbols (aka wildcards).

Shaded A kind of decorated type style. In shaded type each character has something like shadow directed usually to the north-east. That shadow may be black, white with black contour or of any other color. Because of imaginary volume characters in shaded face call 3-dimentions (3-D). The character image (the letter face itself) of such styles may be outline or inline. Useful for headlines and initials.

Shading

Shading refers to depicting depth in 3D models or illustrations by varying levels of darkness.

Shape

Shape (OE. sceap Eng. created thing), refers to the external two-dimensional outline, appearance or configuration of some thing - in contrast to the matter or content or substance of which it is composed.

Small capitals
small caps
SC

A set of capital letters having almost the same height as the lowercase x-height (in fact they are a little higher). Small caps are frequently used for cross references and abbreviations. They are known in Europe from the 16th century in printing books. Often abbreviated s.c.

Spacing

Distance between objects of the same type.
For font means distance between letters.
For paragraph means distance between lines.
For table means distance between cells.
For columns means distance between columns.

Startup folder

Special Microsoft Word folder. Templates located in this folder are called global and Microsoft Word  loads them automatically at startup.

Style

One of the variations in appearance, such as italic and bold, that make up the faces in a type family. The four basic computer styles are Regular, Bold, Italic, and Bold Italic.
Microsoft Word object that contains a set of formatting attributes.

Typeface

(1) The features by which a character’s design is recognized, hence the word face. Within the Latin language group of graphic shapes are the following forms: Uncial, Blackletter, Serif, Sans Serif, Scripts, and Decorative. Each form characterizes one or more designs. Example: Serif form contains four designs called Old Style, Transitional, Modern, and Slab Serif designs. The typeface called Bodoni is a Modern design, while Times Roman is a Transitional design. We need to realistically expect that this hierarchy will be expanded to include grafts and elements of the more experimental graphic faces. The category of Art Damaged or Distressed fonts is one example of an extension of the traditional groupings of face forms.
(2) One of type variants (styles) included in Type family. Typeface styles may vary on their Weight, Proportion, and Posture (be upright, Slanted or Italic). So typeface styles may be described as Light, Book, Bold, Narrow, Expanded and so on.

Unicode

An international standard for character mappings, based on aò extended (mostly 16-bit) index. Unicode is supported in TrueType and OpenType font formats.

Weight A letter's relative amount of blackness. Proper terminology for weight has never been precisely determined. In types used for continuous reading, two weights are generally used the original design, called either regular or light, and a boldface. Square serif and sans serif types have as many as eight or nine different weights, differently described by each manufacturer. Most likely this imprecision can never be corrected.

Wildcards

Character that substitutes for other characters in regular expressions.
The asterisk (*) usually substitutes as a wildcard character for any zero or more characters, and the question mark (?) usually substitutes as a wildcard character for any one character, as in the CP/M, DOS, Microsoft Windows and POSIX (Unix) shells. (In Unix this is referred to as glob expansion.) In SQL, wildcard characters can be used in "LIKE" expressions; the percent sign (%) matches zero or more characters, and underscore (_) a single character. In many regular expression implementations, the period (.) is the wildcard character for a single character.

Wordwrap

Word wrap refers to a feature supported by most text editors that allows them to insert soft returns (or hard returns for some text editors) at the right-side margins of a document. As the full view of the text would show excessively long text strings, word wrapping confines text to the viewable window, allowing text to be edited or read from top to bottom without any left-to-right scrolling.

Zoom

Page zooming is the ability to zoom in and out at page level. It is usually found in applications related to document layout and publishing, e.g. word processing and spreadsheet programs, but it can also be found in some web browsers as it improves accessibility for people with visual impairment and people using handheld devices which have a relatively small screen.

 


Etudes for Microsoft Word Programmers. Introduction. Terms.


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