Etudes for Microsoft Word Programmers. Appendix.

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Diacritic Symbols





A diacritical mark over, under, or through a letter indicating a variation in pronunciation or changing in stress. Eg. ç, à, ò, é, Å.


An accent used on vowels – á é í ó ú ý – in French, Spanish, Italian, Icelandic, Hungarian, Navajo, Gaelic, Czech and many other languages, and on consonants – æ ñ à œ Ÿ – in Basque, Croatian, Polish and romanized Sanskrit. In romanized Chinese, it is used with vowels to mark the rising tone. In Russian, it is used on vowels to mark stress in linguistics and text-books. The accented vowels are included in many fonts as composite characters.


One of the upper accents symbolizing shortness. Used on vowels and consonants in Malay, Romanian, Turkish, Vietnamese and other languages. Also the breve is used in phonetic transcriptions to mark lax (‘short’) vowels. The breve is always rounded with the stress in the bottom.

Caron, Hacek

An inverted circumflex. It is used on consonants and vowels in Slovak, Croatian, Czech, Lapp, Lithuanian and other scripts. It is increasingly used in new scripts for Native American languages. ISO character sets include a precomposed upper- and lowercase s and z with caron, while other combinations, no less frequent in normal text, must be built with the floating accent. Typographers know the caron also by its Czech name, hacek, pronounced “haa-check”.


One of the lower accents, used primarily in French, to soften the C. Also used under consonants in Catalan, Kurdish, Latvian, Portuguese, Rumanian, Turkish and other scripts.


A mark originally used in Greek on long vowels to indicate a rising-falling tone and in other languages to mark length, contraction or a particular vowel quality.


An accent used to separate the pronunciation of two consecutive vowels. Similar to the umlaut.

Double acute

An accent used on the vowels o and u in Hungarian and some other languages.


An accent used on vowels – à è ì ò ù – in French, Italian, Portuguese, Catalan, Vietnamese and many other languages. In romanized Chinese it marks a falling tone. Vowels with grave are included in the ISO standard character set in composite form.


An upper accent like horizontal line. A diacritic used to mark long vowels a e i o u in Fijian, Hausa, Latvian, Lithuanian, and other languages.


One of the lower accents used with vowels in Lithuanian, Navajo, Polish and many other scripts. It is like a little hook opened to the right under the letter. As a rule it is connected to the main letter. Also called a nasal hook.

Overdot, Dotaccent

One of the upper accents used with consonants in Polish and Maltese, with vowels in Lithuanian and Turkish, and in other languages.


One of the upper accents used above vowel A in Danish, Norvegian and Swedish, and under vowel U in Czech, and in other languages.


Etudes for Microsoft Word Programmers. Appendix. Diacritic Symbols.

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